Review of Roots and Wings: Equipping and Empowering Young Diaspora Africans for Life and Mission By Rev Israel Olofinjana

Roots and Wings is a new book written by one of my friends and colleague, Dr Harvey Kwiyani. The book explores issues related to how to effectively engage in discipleship and mission second generation African migrants. These are children born in Britain of African parents.  As a pastor of a Black Multicultural Church (BMC) in London with half of the congregation being second generation Africans, this book excites me and is of paramount interest to me.  As an African Theologian researching in the areas of Diaspora Missiology, I am aware that essays, journal articles and book chapters have been written on the subject. An example of the latter is Caleb Nyanni’s chapter contribution in African Voices: Towards African British Theologies (2017). His contribution, based on his ongoing PhD research, investigated the pneumatology of second generation Africans within the Church of Pentecost. I am equally aware of a current doctoral student exploring the use of the Bible among second generation Caribbean Christians within one of the Caribbean Pentecostal churches. But no one has yet published a monograph on the subject in Britain, therefore the efforts of Dr Kwiyani is to be commended for pioneering such a work.

The central question the book wrestles with is, how can we best equip and disciple younger generation of Africans for mission in Britain? In tackling this question are the issues of identity which second generation Africans or others struggle with. Are they Africans or British? Can they be both at the same time? These are questions to do with hybridity and liminality. But the book goes further than just a sociological exercise on the hybrid nature of second generation as it proposes insightful and pragmatic approach in how we can effectively disciple and empower younger Africans to engage in God’s mission. In effect, the book is missiological, addressing the mission implication of younger Africans’ involvement in mission in Britain. The book sees reaching second generation Africans not only as a form of intergenerational ministry, but also a cross-cultural matter as it is possible for a father and daughter living in the same house to live by different cultural worldviews. In essence, the first generation must cross the frontiers as missionaries do when they travel to a different culture if they want their children to follow their faith.

The book, using the Hebrew saying of giving two gifts to children in roots and wings, explores how important it is for younger Africans born in diaspora to have a sense of belonging and identity, that is roots, but at the same time not be trapped by their parents’ cultural background so that they can grow wings to explore something foreign to their parent’s culture. The author argues that when roots and wings are not balanced, we have scenarios of younger Africans being global citizens at the expense and sacrifice of their Africaness. The other scenario is of course when African parents do not want their children to explore anything that is alien to their own cultural background and worldview. This, in the process entraps younger Africans and the result usually backfires so that they reject their parent’s faith and culture. The author went on to argue convincingly that the future of Christianity in the British Isles   is at stake if we fail to disciple second generation Africans. One can understand this assertion, because if the current growth of Christianity in the UK, with London as a leading example, is among Black Majority Churches, it simply means the future legacy of these churches is conditioned on how that faith is passed on to the next generation.

All the chapters in this book are excellent, but one that I find very helpful and know will be of use to youth pastors, leaders and church leaders in general is chapter six. The chapter addresses how we can build second generation friendly churches so that younger Africans and others feel a sense of belonging. One of the suggestions in this chapter was for African pastors and churches to ensure that the church is thinking intergenerational in its approach and outlook. This means the church cannot be run to cater just for the needs of the first generation, it has to rethink and give room to second generation Africans to operate in the church so that they feel a sense of ownership and belonging. This is not a question of how do we keep our young people in the church so that they do not run off to another church. It is rather a question of how can we empower and support our younger people in their faith and ministries?

Part of engaging younger Africans will mean African pastors and churches understanding the digital native culture, that is, how young people live and inhabit the digital space. This will mean African pastors interested in using technology not just to promote their self-help books and conferences, but understand how to habit it comfortably so that they can engage younger people. Younger generation appears to use the digital world for sharing life together and doing discipleship. This is different from wanting to use the tools of technology to promote sales of books or conferences. This means for African pastors to engage second generation Africans they have to themselves become natives of the digital world. This however is not a substitute for face to face fellowship which younger Africans must be encouraged to be part of.

One critique I will like to offer is that while the author mentions that the Caribbean churches somehow failed to pass on the faith to their second generation and that African churches must learn from this. I would have like to see a whole chapter possibly devoted to this looking at what led to the failures and what African churches can learn from those failures. Such a chapter can even compare through analysis and data collection African churches and Caribbean churches. Perhaps this is for further research and reflection.

In concluding, a succinct point that the author makes is that if African churches can seek to understand their children who are British perhaps this can in turn help them to understand the wider British public and their mission in Britain.

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Black Theology at the Royal Wedding!

Conversations are still ongoing about the preaching of Bishop Michael Curry at the Royal Wedding on Saturday. These conversations and debates cover the length of the message, the awkwardness of the message, the reactions of attendees to the message and the Blackness of the message! Normally at Royal weddings the Bride’s dress among other things always appears to be the topic of public conversation, but not this time as Bishop Curry’s message appears to be competing with Meghan’s simple yet stylish, elegant dress. So what is all the fuss about?

Firstly is the fact that white British people are not used to an African-American style of preaching with emotions involved, gestures and pacing.  A second point is that people somehow were expecting a five minute sermon ( although we have not been informed by the planners and organisers that this was supposed to be the case). Lastly and most importantly are the content of the message which I think made people uncomfortable. Here was a descendant of slaves speaking passionately about love in the symbol of fire among descendants of slave owners, using illustrations from slave narratives. Here is a very powerful and punchy articulation of Black Theology in exemplifying God’s love through redemptive history. But in addition, I also think Bishop Curry used the slave narrative possibly as a reminder of some of the racial injustices that black people still face today. He also quoted the Civil rights leader, Dr Martin Luther King, on several occasions, again possibly as a reminder that we commemorate his 50 years since he was murdered for the cause of racial justice. These are pointers to stir people’s conscience.

Bishop Curry’s message will be analysed for years to come by theologians, Bible scholars, social commentators, media, journalists, political editors and many more because it was historical, biblical, relevant, unique and bold. It is also a message relevant for the Church at a time when some aspect of the Church think we need to move away from sermons to conversations. Bishop Curry’s message reminds us the power of preaching and how inspiring and creative it can be if in the hands of the right vessel who is willing to be led by God’s Spirit to proclaim the Gospel and confront power with an uncomfortable truth.

I celebrate this message and how it has brought public debates and conversations about God and racial justice. This message comes on the back of the Windrush scandal and the youth violence plaguing the capital and other parts of the UK. All of these events cause me to reflect that God is bringing into the public consciousness issues that have been swept under the carpet. Now they have the public’s attention and can no longer be ignored.

 

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New mobile app launched brings thousands of new resources to African congregations (Press Release!)

 

Agencies including Tearfund, Christian Aid, CPAS, Westminster Theology Centre, Lausanne Movement, A Rocha, Centre for Missionaries from the Majority World and many others are supporting a new mobile phone app that has been developed and launched by African Pastors Fellowship (APF) – putting a mobile library of theological resources into the hands of rural pastors across East Africa for the first time.  The ‘eVitabu’ app, which is installed on solar-powered Android devices will help support pastors’ ministries with large church networks across East Africa, potentially impacting the Christian journey of over half a million people.

 

The eVitabu app includes content provided by APF’s partner agencies, giving pastors access to studies on personal, spiritual and pastoral growth; audio Bibles in local languages; theology courses from internationally renowned centres; video lectures by top Christian leaders; community development toolkits; and guides on family healthcare, leadership, advocacy, peace-building, and sustainable agriculture. It also enables African pastors to upload and share their own theological insights with their peers.

 

It is estimated that over 3 million churches in the developing world are led by people with little or no qualifications for that responsibility. In Africa, it is estimated that as many as 90% of pastors have never received even a single day’s training. eVitabu, which means books in Swahili, is a pioneering tool designed specifically to support the African church.

 

Dave Stedman, CEO of APF commented: “eVitabu has the potential to enable thousands of rural church leaders to access great quality training material possibly for the very first time. We are grateful to our partners for their support in launching this initiative and helping us to provide quality content. Excitingly the app also provides a unique platform for the voice of the Africa church. African leaders can use eVitabu to upload and share their own material with other church leaders, so everyone benefits.”

 

APF launched the eVitabu app at a three-day training conference in Uganda where the durable Android Tablets were given to 57 pastors from eight East African countries including Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Malawi, South Sudan and DRC. These pastors can now browse and download the searchable library of content before going into remote parts of the continent to teach and support other pastors and congregations. New content can be accessed and downloaded almost anywhere using a mobile phone as a wifi hotspot.

 

One of the pastors who was provided with an eVitabu tablet is Heavenlight Luoga who oversees a network of 60 rural churches in North West Tanzania. Heavenlight explains how it will support his ministry: “I have found many good materials on eVitabu from different contributors. I have mobilised a core team of five teachers and we will meet each month to study together. My wife, Kesia, will also use eVitabu resources when training pastors’ wives in Burundi. eVitabu will improve our teaching and help us address issues in the church and community such as theological error, farming and entrepreneurship.”

 

The eVitabu app was developed by a small group of APF volunteers who donated hundreds of man-hours to deliver this resource to impact the African church.

Partners supporting the eVitabu project by providing content include: Andrew Kane Partnership Trust, Biblical Frameworks, BUILD Partners, Christian Aid, CPAS,

Eagles Wings Ministries, Centre for Missionaries from the Majority World, Next Leadership,

Paula Gooder, Reconxile, Renew Outreach, Regnum Books, Foundations for Farming, Lausanne Movement, Tearfund, Tierra Neuva, Westminster Theology Centre, A Rocha, and Climate Stewards.

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For more information, or photographs of eVitabu please contact: Rachel Heald, PR consultant, 07985 424 084 / rheald@weareyeomans.co.uk

 

About African Pastors Fellowship

The vision of African Pastors Fellowship (APF) is to enable African Christian leaders, of all denominations, to minister effectively in thriving local churches that serve flourishing communities. APF works with church partners from across Eastern, Central and Southern Regions of Africa.

APF does this by coming alongside influential leaders to help them fulfil their visions for leadership development and pastoral formation. There are three strands to APF’s work:

  • Pastoring of Pastors – building long-term partnerships with African church networks to help them reach their own leadership development objectives, supporting training workshops for rural pastors, helping church leaders access essential tools such as Bibles in local languages, bicycles and solar panels.
  • Flourishing Communities – equipping African church leaders to serve their communities and tackle poverty, inequality and environmental challenges e.g. promoting sustainable development by addressing food insecurity and climate change impacts so that the whole community benefits.
  • Hearing African Voices – everyone needs an opportunity for their voice to be heard. By listening to African friends sharing news of what God is doing in their churches and communities, we can all understand more and be encouraged. In an increasingly interconnected world, it is vitally important to know how the choices we make every day affect those living in other parts of the world.

 

For more information visit www.africanpastors.org/   Twitter: @AfricanPF
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UK Orthodox and Pentecostal leaders in solidarity with The Persecuted Church (Press Statement 30 November 2017 For Immediate Release)

 

 

Leaders of Britain’s Eastern and Oriental Orthodox and Pentecostal churches meeting at The Raynors, Harrow, Middlesex on Monday 27 November 2017 reaffirmed their commitment to stand in solidarity with Christians suffering persecution, including martyrdom, in our world.

 

Stories of atrocities and suffering met by love and non-retaliation, of tragedies met by deep spiritual resolve were shared concerning the Middle East, Asia, Africa and elsewhere. In response the leaders encouraged Christians everywhere to:

 

Prayer

Generosity

Advocacy

Keeping the matter of The Persecuted Church alive

Speaking after the meeting the three conveyors, Bishop Angaelos, Pastor Agu Iruwku and The Rt Revd Maxim Nikolsky responded:

 

‘The second meeting of our Orthodox-Pentecostal Forum was a good opportunity to discuss our relationships here in Britain and how they can impact our surrounding communities. It was also a time to share news and experiences of persecuted Christians in the Middle East and elsewhere in the world and see how we can best collaborate to support them’ (Bishop Angaelos, CTE President for Orthodox churches)

 

Pastor Agu Irukwu, CTE President for Pentecostal churches said, ‘This was certainly a historic meeting as representatives of the leaders of the Orthodox and Pentecostal churches in the UK came together. Amongst other things, we deliberated on The Persecuted Church and the role we should play in praying and speaking up for them. We also discussed ways of supporting churches and organisations that are actively working with our brothers and sisters who are being persecuted for their faith around the world. We committed to ensuring that this message of solidarity is communicated throughout the churches that we represent and that we can all work together to be there for our brothers and sisters who are suffering simply for loving the Jesus we love’

 

The Rt Revd Nikolski said, ‘The second meeting of its kind today between Orthodox and Pentecostal churches in which we shared common concern and pain regarding the oppression and persecution of Christians throughout the world. The killing, torture and exile of thousands of believers in Our Lord Jesus Christ stirred the meeting to consider what action, as well as prayer, the we should take. We all must take on the responsibility of helping victims of this tragedy and do all we can to prevent further persecution.’

 

Orthodox and Pentecostals will continue to raise awareness and encourage action throughout the churches and beyond, and to continue to meet jointly in the years to come.

 

End…

Notes:

 

 

 

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Pastor Agu Irukwu becomes new Churches Together in England Pentecostal President(Press Statement 30 October 2017 For Immediate Release)

Pentecostal members of Churches Together in England have elected Pastor Agu Irukwu as the next Pentecostal President.  A law graduate of the University of Warwick, a barrister and former investment banker, Pastor Agu is national leader of the Redeemed Christian Church of God in the UK, and Senior Pastor of Jesus House, London. Pastor Agu becomes only the second person to serve in this position following Bishop Eric Brown who was first elected Pentecostal President in 2013.

CTE Presidents provide spiritual leadership to the national ecumenical movement that facilitates closer working together by the churches in England.  The Pentecostal President is part of a six-member presidium representing the breadth of English Christianity, these are: Bishop Angaelos, the Revd Canon Billy Kennedy, the Revd Dr Hugh Osgood, Cardinal Vincent Nichols and Archbishop Justin Welby.

In welcoming the new President, the Revd Dr David Cornick, General Secretary of CTE said, ‘We are delighted to welcome Pastor Agu as our Pentecostal President and look forward to working with him to build on the foundations so ably laid by our first Pentecostal President, Bishop Eric Brown. ‘

The new Pentecostal President signed a joint covenant at a meeting of CTE presidents and national church leaders on 24 October 2017 at Lambeth Palace.  The covenant commits the presidents to ‘pray to God to lead us, with all our sisters and brothers in Christ, towards communion in faith, life and witness; so that, united in one body by the one Spirit, we may together witness to the perfect unity of his love’.

Commenting on his appointment Pastor Agu said, ‘I consider it an honour and a privilege to serve as one of the six presidents of Churches Together in England.  As the Pentecostal President, I have tremendous regard for the five other presidents most of them I know personally and are people whose ministries and lives I have admired. I am hoping that I can bring whatever graces God has given to me to bear as we serve the church in what I consider exciting times. Exciting because in spite of negative news that all abounds, I see tremendous opportunity for the church. I am believing that as we serve we will play our part in bringing to pass the revival that we so earnestly desire for this nation’.

The Pentecostal President’s term will run from October 2017 to September 2021.

End…

 

Notes:

 

  1. Press enquiries: Dr Joe Aldred 07775 632288 or joe.aldred@cte.org.uk
  2. Churches Together in England is established by the 45 national member churches to facilitate and encourage collaboration in mission and unity.
  3. The Presidents of Churches Together in England provide spiritual leadership for the churches together movement in England
  4. For further information about Pastor Agu Irukwu: click here
  5. For further information about CTE: click here

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African Initiated Churches (AIC): The History of the Cherubim and Seraphim Church Movement

The history of the cherubim and Seraphim church starts with the remarkable story of its founder, Mose Orimolade Tunolase. The pregnancy, birth and growth of Mose Orimolade is all shrouded in African mythology and cosmology that will sound like fairytale and made up stories to the educated minds. For example, it is recorded on one occasion that while his mother Odijoroto was pregnant with him, he spoke from the womb in order to assist his mother with some domestic chores. Another story goes that the day he was born he decided to walk and was cursed by his embarrassed father Tunolase who was an Ifa priest. These stories and many more have circulated among the C&S faithfuls since the period of Orimolade until now, this is because these stories were traditions handed down from one generation to another. This reflects one of the processes of African historiography, whereby history is in the form of oral tradition. Whether one subscribes to these stories as my Mother does, one thing is clear from the conception and birth of Orimolade in south-western Nigeria in 1879 (a date supposedly ascribed as his birth date as there were no birth registers in those days) and that is that he was sent for a special purpose. His father as explained before, was an Ifa Priest, and had consulted the Ifa Oracle in order to understand the destiny of his son and have been told twice that his son was very special and was sent to serve God.

Calling into Independent Ministry

Orimolade as a result of his father’s curse grew up as a cripple therefore this hindered his formal education considerably. Orimolade had contacts with the only local Anglican Church in his home town of Ikare and was even involved in leading the church choir as he had a lovely voice. Through this involvement with the Anglican Church he began memorising Bible passages and started having various encounters with God. It seems Orimolade must have become a Christian around this period or earlier in his life as this is regarded as his first contact with the Church.

He later felt called by God into the ministry but the Christians in Ikare were not willing to work with him instead they ridiculed him because of his disability. Orimolade frustrated by his physical limitations and ridicule sought the face of God in the place of prayer. One night as he was praying, an Angel appeared to him in a dream and gave him three objects: a rod, a royal insignia and a crown. The rod symbolising victory, the insignia power of prayer and speaking and the crown respect. He woke up confirmed that he was called to preach the Gospel. This dream formally marked his commissioning into ministry as he started preaching the Gospel. An incident occurred in which he helped plead the case of the Christians in Ikare against Police persecution and imprisonment this made the Christians in Ikare to respect him and willing to work with him. Orimolade started preaching the Gospel from street to street as an itinerant preacher. One thing that really impresses his audience was his ability to quote lots of scriptural passages despite his lack of education. Shortly after this burst of ministry it appears that Orimolade was taken ill for about seven years and was in confinement for those periods. A different tradition has it that it was ten years of solitary confinement due to Orimolade seeking God and experiencing the miraculous as angels appeared to him.

The illness was so severe that his people abandoned him to die, but he was assured in a dream that he would recover from the illness if only he would take water from a nearby stream. He obeyed and began to recover steadily, though he remained lame for the rest of his life needing a staff for support. This tradition is more popular than the latter one and it seemed probable in the light of incidences at his birth that Orimolade actually suffered from an illness for a long period of his life. In addition, it must have been during this long illness that he was prepared for his evangelistic ministry through prayers, fasting and visions and dreams. Three important practices emerged from this experience which has come to define the Cherubim and Seraphim church. They are: prayer and fasting, use of holy water from the stream and emphasis on dreams and visions.

Now that Orimolade was well prepared for ministry he started travelling around the country and went as far as the north.  From around 1916 to 1924, when Orimolade settled in Lagos, he travelled about preaching the Gospel everywhere he went. He went to a town called Irun, noted for his witchcraft activities here Orimolade confronted witchcraft practices and pulled down the image of their local divinity. From this town he journeyed to neighbouring villages such as Akungba, Oka, Akoko-Edo, Ikiran and Ibillo Townships.

He went to Benin where he condemned the practice of human sacrifice arguing that human beings were created in God’s image. This sermon led to many Traditionalists submitting their idols, charms and emblems for burning. Orimolade earned the name Alhaji Yisa (Yisa is the Islamic rendition of Jesus while Alhaji is for someone who has done the hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca) during his travels

History of the Cherubim and Seraphim Church Nigeria

 

Throughout his missionary journeys and itinerant ministry, Orimolade worked with CMS and other church denominations. His intentions initially was not to start a church but to continue his missionary work, however, while he settled in Lagos in 1924 lodging at one of the CMS churches and later with one of the African Churches (United Native African Church), an incident occurred that led to the formation of the Cherubim and Seraphim church.

 

In June1925, after a year of itinerant ministry in Lagos, an incident that would change the direction of Orimolade’s freelance ministry occurred. On 18th of June 1925, a teenage girl by the name Christianah Aboidun Akinsowon went with some of her friends to the Campus Square to witness that year’s Catholic Corpus Christi procession. While they were witnessing the event, Aboidun claimed to have seen a strange spectacle: an angel of the Lord was under the canopy of Corpus Christi. As a result of this vision, she became feverish and was rushed home. She fell into a trance which lasted many days. Rev. T.A.J. Ogunbiyi, vicar of St Paul’s Breadfruit in Lagos (CMS church) and Abiodun’s minister was called upon to pray for Abiodun’s recovery but nothing happened He explained to them that she was hallucinating. Abiodun came back to herself after seven days of trance. When she came around, she recounted her mysterious experience of how an angel gave her a guided tour of the Celestial city. By this time there was a steady gathering of people at Abiodun’s home.  While she was in trance her guardian on the recommendations of people sent for Orimolade who refused to come as a result of heavy downpour of rain. He was sent for the third time and this time around he honoured their invitation. Orimolade prayed and read the Scriptures to Abiodun after which the whole gathering sang some hymns. As more people gathered to listen to Abiodun’s vision the more the house was getting crowded, therefore, Abiodun’s guardians suggested that Orimolade should take Abiodun to his new residence in Ago-Isofin in Lagos. Many more people kept gathering each day for healing, testimonies and prayers. This eventually led to a regular prayer meeting at Orimolade’s residence. As the prayer group was progressing, Orimolade declared three days of prayer and fasting so that God would reveal the name which the prayer group would be called. On the 9th of September after the three days of prayer and fasting a woman who was a member of the group declared that she saw two letters, SE, written in fire up in the sky. One of the African Church members who now follow Orimolade explained that the two letters were the beginning of the word Serafu (Seraph). The group agreed with what Rev. Barber said and adopted the name Egbe Serafu (The Seraphim Society). Later another  woman mentioned that it has been revealed to her that it is wrong to separate the twin angels: Kerubu and Serafu (Cherubim and Seraphim); therefore Kerubu was added to the name and the church became Cherubim and Seraphim Society (C&S hereafter).

Few weeks later the Society in following with Jewish customs in the Old Testament and African Traditional Religion, decided to covenant the relationship between their Society and the celestial figures by electing Archangel Michael as its Patron and Angel Gabriel as its Deputy-Patron. This election stemmed from an understanding that the Society which had always existed in heaven before it was inaugurated in Lagos was a gift from God through the Holy Spirit. Another basic practice of the church around this period was the wearing of white gowns commanded by Orimolade who believed that Angels were robed in white garments. The Society’s belief that they were a unique gift from God motivated them to engage in evangelistic activities so that by 1928, C&S churches were established in Lagos, Ogun, Ondo and Ibadan towns. They spread rapidly like a wildfire in the south-western part of the country.

In less than four years after its inception, the church started to experience conflicts which led to different schisms of the C&S church movement. The first of such splits occurred between Orimolade and Abiodun in 1929. To make matters worse a youth group of the church called valiant twelve sided with Abiodun, encouraging her that she was more popular than Orimolade. All attempts to reconcile the two groups were futile and this led to the two groups adopting different names. Orimolade’s group adopted the name The Eternal Sacred Order of the Cherubim and Seraphim Society while Abiodun’s group were designated as The Cherubim and Seraphim Society. As Orimolade was recovering from this schism another one occurred in 1930 between him and the praying band of his church. The praying band led by Ezekiel Davies rejected the leadership of Orimolade and decided to constitute themselves separately from Orimolade. Orimolade took the case to court but it was to no avail. The praying band became The Praying Band of the C&S church. As these developments were happening, the leaders of the C&S churches in the western part of the country pleaded with the different groups to end the divisions. Nobody took notice of their appeal and this led to them registering as a separate organisation called, The Western Conference of the C&S Nigeria under the leadership of Christianah Olatunrinle who became the first General Superintendent of this church. It was this prophetess who influenced the movement in a Classic Pentecostal direction as she was influenced by members of The Apostolic Church.

In 1932, Major A.B. Lawrence, one of the leaders of the Praying Band Church declared that he has received a vision in which he was instructed to start his own church. This led to the Holy Flock of Christ Church. In 1933 while all these schisms and many more where happening Orimolade died on 19th of October 1933 in Ojokoro Lagos. He died a celibate having decided not to marry devoting his time to prayer and seeking God. His death was not based on any sickness or illness it was a natural death. His death without any children however led to the question of who will succeed the Baba Aladura? A week before his death Orimolade had blessed and named one Abraham Onanuga an elderly and knowledgeable man but late convert as his successor. However, majority of the elders felt Peter Omojola, Orimolade’s senior brother was a more likely candidate. This yet led to another schism as a party who felt Onanuga was not qualified to be the leader encouraged Omojola to start his own church. He did and this led to the inauguration of Eternal Sacred Order of the C&S on Hotonu Street, while Onanuga led the Eternal Sacred Order of the Cherubim and Seraphim Society, Mount Zion Ibadan Street. C&S Church movement continues today in Nigeria, other African countries, Europe and the United States, but the schisms that weakened the church in its formative years has continued down the years till today. One commentator has noted that there is probably no sect in Christendom that has suffered so much splintering as this movement.

Attempts have been made to unite the different factions of the movement. Abiodun made an unsuccessful attempt in 1935 after Orimolade’s death. Another attempt was made in 1965 to unite all the C&S groups; this effort was successful to some extent as the C&S churches were united under the umbrella of National Council of Cherubim and Seraphim. Dr G.I.M. Otubu (Dr Otubu became the representative of Organisation of African Instituted Churches (OAIC) Nigeria on the OAIC International executive committee in 1993. He later became the international chairman of OAIC in 1997), the leader of the movement in 1996 managed to rally together fifty two of the fifty six C&S groups, but divisions have resurfaced again, however the church continues to be influential in Nigeria and outside Nigeria today. Cherubim and Seraphim church was one of the earliest AICs to be planted in Europe. The first Cherubim and Seraphim church in Europe was planted in London in 1965.

 

To read more about the history of the Cherubim and Seraphim Church Movement  please see my book 20 Pentecostal Pioneers in Nigeria.

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African British Theology: A New Book, An emerging Field of Study!

A new book published by Langham Partnership (Langham Monographs) is set to be released in September. The book titled, African Voices: Towards African British Theologies sets out a new field of study known as African British Theologies. The book argues and articulates that the significant presence of African Christianity in Britain and the theologising of African Theologians in the British context is paving the way for this emerging field of study. It is African Theology because of the presence of African Christianity, but it is also British because the new context, Britain demands that African Christians contextualise the gospel for the multicultural British society.  One of the uniqueness of this book is that all the twelve contributors are African pastors-scholars all engaged in ministry and theological scholarship in Britain. The book is divided into three sections, Missiology, Constructive Theology and Practical Theology. Under each discipline are emergent theologies such as Reverse Missiology, Sacred use and spaces by African Churches, African Pneumatology, African Christology, Prosperity Gospel, Intercultural Ecumenism, Black Womanist Theology, Second-generation Africans and African church growth and spirituality.

Here is what some scholars have to say about the book

Olofinjana’s edited volume pushes the scholarship on African theology forward in new and exciting directions. While much research to date has focused on theology in the context of the African continent, Olofinjana argues that diasporic African identity – especially in the United Kingdom, his own area of particular focus – needs to be taken more seriously in its own right as a distinctive milieu of theological reflection. The other key area of innovation is the volume’s focus on the intellectual production that is being pioneered by members of African diasporic churches themselves; this, then, is theology deeply engaged with practice and diasporic identity. In this rich and multi-faceted volume, Olofinjana and his eleven contributors explore important themes such as reverse mission, emergent theologies, and the remaking of sacred space in the diaspora.

Dr Joel Cabrita, Lecturer in World Christianities, Faculty of Divinity, University of Cambridge

The emergence of sub-Saharan Africa as a major theatre of Christian faith was one of the most striking developments of the twentieth century. The migration to the West of large numbers of African Christians has the potential for hugely important developments within Western Christianity in the twenty-first. This book is full of insights into both these factors, and provides food for thought in plenty.

Andrew F Walls, University of Edinburgh, Liverpool Hope University and Akrofi-Christaller Institute, Ghana

This is a lively, very insightful and much needed compendium of intensive research in the field of theology, done by African Christians. All the twelve presentations in this book represent the efforts at calling our attention to the need to give ample currency to the development of African Theology outside the continent of Africa.

In sum, this volume succeeds in capturing an initiative to provide an opportunity for African scholars to share their unique perspectives and insights on African brand of theology.  This initiative allows for deeper understanding and appreciation of the extensiveness of research being done by African Christians in the field of theology. This includes but not limited to, Missiology, Practical Theology, Biblical Studies and Systematic Theology.

Israel Olofinjana is to be commended for his ability to assemble such a wide spectrum of material which addresses several fundamental issues under three main premises: Missiological Themes: Reverse Mission; Migration and Contested Spaces; Contextual Constructive Theology: Charting Emergent Theologies and Transformative Theology: African Practical Theologies

I warmly commend this book edited by Israel Olofinjana for personal insight and corporate enlightenment. It is valuable to all serving clergy and lay leaders at all levels of the church hierarchy and irrespective of denomination.

Professor Deji Isaac Ayegboyin, Head of Department of Religious Studies, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Past President of the Nigerian Baptist Theological Seminary, Ogbomoso.

 

 

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