Emerging African Theologians in Britain

As I continue to reflect on the nature and development of African Christianity in Britain, I began asking myself the question. Now that we have thousands of African Churches in Britain who are the theologians reflecting, critiquing and most importantly writing about African Christianity in Britain? In essence, who are the theologians of the African Church Movement in Britain? This is not an easy task because while we have so many African pastors with some having Masters in Theology and others having Doctoral degrees in Theology, there are very few African pastors and scholars writing. There are several reasons why African pastors are not writing or should I say not writing theological text books, because there are many African pastors writing motivational and inspirational books which appeals more and are targeted at an average believer than theological students. So why are African pastors not writing theological textbooks or books that demonstrate they are reflecting on their church and history?

Firstly, is still the perception that studying theology is either not relevant or could lead to one losing his or her faith. Some have experienced theological institutions and were not pleased at how impractical some of their studies were. Some African pastors who went to study theology at one of the British theological institution mention to me that if they were to preach the way they were taught to preach, then no one from their congregation will return the next Sunday! This sounds very shocking, but what they were alluding to was the fact of being taught by someone with highly qualified theological degree in preaching and hermeneutics but perhaps lacks the pastoral experience. Added to this is the ignorance of the dynamics and context of an African Church. Is this statement justified? On the one hand, we need more African pastors to have theological training so as to be prepared to minister in a post modern British society, but on the other hand we also need theological tutors who have current and relevant pastoral and ministerial experience who will be able to combined head and heart in a theological class room. Having theological instructors whose pastoral experience and ministries were in the 1960s/70s is not good enough! In addition, we need more than just white British theological educators in our theological institution because the face of the church in Britain is now multi-ethnic.

A second reason why I think African pastors are not writing theological text books is the way and nature of academic and traditional publishing system. Academic publishing is obviously based on academic qualifications or being attached to a theological institution or centre. This means if you do not have a chair in a theological institution or at least attached to a college or University, you are likely not going to be considered. For traditional publishing, you have to know people that matters in the world of Christian celebrities or have a good reference from someone inside the publishing house. This is partly why some African pastors and churches have established their own publishing companies to print their inspirational books.

Lastly, is the practical need of writing which many African pastors have adopted. African pastors seem to prefer to write about how to solve your financial problems than to write about the history of African Pentecostal Churches in Britain. This is partly driven by the needs in some of these churches which ranges from immigration issues, visa restrictions, marital problems, financial problems. But it has to be said that while some of these motivational books are written with the practical and urgent needs of people in mind, some of the writings are done by pastors who have their own agenda of preaching Prosperity! The more books you write on success, the more people buy them, the more money you make! African pastors must take the time to reflect on the nature of our churches, its doctrines and practices and write to help educate and disciple its followers.

Having considered few reasons why African pastors are not writing theological text books, it is important to mention the few in Britain that are writing and reflecting on the African Church Movement as it is unfolding. This is not an exhaustive list so please do forgive me if you do not see your name!

Dr Afe Adogame: Afe is possibly one of the best known African scholars not only in Britain but in Europe, North America and Africa. He has written, contributed, edited more books and articles than any African scholar I am aware of in Britain. His bibliography is impressive authoring around 10 books and written countless articles in edited books and academic journals on African Christianity in Diaspora. Afe is lecturer in World Christianity and Religious Studies at the University of Edinburgh. For his impressive bibliography follow this link http://www.ed.ac.uk/schools-departments/divinity/staff/search?uun=aadogame&search=&params=&cw_xml=publications.php

Rev Dr Kate Coleman: Kate Coleman is a Baptist minister and theologian who is actively involved in developing strategic leaders. She is a Womanist Theologian who reflects on the issues that affect women in leadership with a particular focus on black women in leadership. She has written a book, 7 Deadly Sins of Women in Leadership , Birmingham, Next Leadership Publishing, 2010, and contributed in academic journals and book chapters. Kate also teaches at various theological institutions one of which is Cliff College. Kate is the director of Next Leadership a cutting egde organisation that is involved in training and equipping leaders.

Rev Dr Chigor Chike: Chigor Chike is an ordained Anglican minister in East London and has written 2 books on African Christianity in Britain: The first being, African Christianity in Britain, Milton Keynes, Author House, 2007. This book surveyed the doctrines and practices of African Christians in Britain. The second is Voices from Slavery: Life and Beliefs of African Slaves in Britain, Milton Keynes, Author House, 2007. This book considers the life of 4 African Christian slaves in Britain drawing on their theological significance.

Rev Joe Kapolyo: Joe Kapolyo is a Baptist minister and scholar whose academic credentials combines Theology and Social Anthropology. Joe has the experience of leading theological institutions both in Africa and Britain. He has also worked with a lot of mission organisations. Joe has written books and has contributed book chapters as well as journal articles. Joe was one of the contributors of the African Bible Commentary and Dictionary of Mission Theology.

Dr Babatunde Adedibu: One of the emerging African missiologist in Britain is Babatunde Adedibu who is one of the pastors of the Redeemed Christian Church of God (RCCG). Babatunde as the research and ecumenical officer of RCCG can be regarded as the RCCG Theologian. Babatunde has written 2 books up to date and has contributed both in academic journals and book volumes. His two books are: Storytelling: An Effective Communication Appeal in Preaching, London, Wisdom Summit, 2009 and Coat of Many Colours, London, Wisdom Summit, 2012. Coat of Many Colours documents the history, mission and theology of Black Majority Churches (BMCs). Babatunde is a research fellow at University of Roehampton.

Dr Harvey Kwiyani: Harvey is another emerging African missiologist in Britain who has experience of the Missional Church Conversation in North America and Britain. This experience is reflected in his new book: Sent Forth: African Missionary Work in the West, New York, Orbis Books, 2014. This book which builds on earlier scholarship brings us up to the date with the African missionary movement in the West. The strength of the book lies in the fact that it attempts to view in holistic terms the missionary work of Africans in the West and the Missional Church Conversation as it is unfolding. Harvey is the brain behind Missio Africanus an initiative designed to help the missionary work of Africans in Britain. This is done through the Missio Africanus conference and journal (work in progress). He teaches missions, leadership, and African studies at Birmingham Christian College and at Church Mission Society (CMS) in Oxford. He is also research fellow at the Cuddesdon Study Centre at Ripon College, Cuddesdon

Israel Olofinjana: Lastly, I have to include my name as I have done a fair amount of writing and reflection on African Christianity, history and mission in Africa and Britain. I have written 3 books: Reverse in Ministry and Missions: Africans in the Dark Continent of Europe, Milton Keynes, Author House, 2010, 20 Pentecostal Pioneers in Nigeria, Bloomington, IN, Xlibiris, 2013 and Turning the Tables on Mission: Stories of Christians from the Global South in Britain, London, Instant Apostle/Lion Hudson Publishers. I have also contributed book chapters in academic text books:

Olofinjana, I.O, 2014, Nigerian Pentecostals: Towards Consumerism or Prosperity? In A. Adogame ed. 2014. The Public Face of African New Religious Movements in Diaspora, Surrey, Ashgate Publishing Limited, pp. 233-254.
This chapter explores prosperity Gospel as articulated by Nigerian Pentecostals in Britain comparring the development of prosperity Gospel in the United States, Africa and Britain.

Olofinjana, I.O, 2014, The Significance of Multicultural Churches in Britain: A Case Study of Crofton Park Baptist Church. In R.D. Smith, W. Ackah and A.G. Reddie eds. 2014. Churches, Blackness and Contested Multiculturalism, New York, Palgrave macmillan, pp. 75-86.

Olofinjana, I.O, 2014, Biography of the Revd Dr Mojola Agbebi. In G. Richards, 2014. Text and Story: Prophets for Their Time and Ours, Oxford, Centre for Baptist History and Heritage Oxford, pp. 18-20.
This contribution explores the life and legacy of the African nationalist and Baptist theologian, Dr Mojola Agbebi.

In addition, I am also one of the directors of Centre for Missionaries from the Majority World, an initiative established to train and equip missionaries from the Majority World.

In conclusion, while I have only focused in this article on African pastors and scholars writing in Britain, it is worth mentioning that there are others not African who have reflected and written about African Christianity and Churches in Britain. Some of them are: Dr Anthony Reddie, leading Black Theologian in Britain,  Dr Robert Beckford, leading Black Theologian in Britain, Dr Joe Aldred, Pentecostal and Multicultural Relations, CTE, Mark Sturge, author of Look what the Lord has done and Dr Richard Burgess, lecturer in Ministerial Theology University of Roehampton.

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What is Advent all about?

As we begin to count down towards Christmas and majority are feeling jolly including myself, it is important to reflect on the season when Jesus was born. This is traditionally known as advent coming from the latin word adventus which was translated from the Greek word Parousia. Parousia describes the coming of Jesus but it also means presence and signifies the presence of God with us. The New Testament writers, while they did not use the word advent because they were primarily writing in Greek and not Latin, talks about the parousia of Jesus in two stages.

The first stage was his birth and the ushering in of God’s kingdom on earth. The second is when he will come again and begin the end. I want to focus in this article on the first coming of Jesus. The various New Testament writers describes this coming in different language. Matthew tells us he was born of a virgin interpreting and applying Isaiah’s prophecy in Isaiah 7:14. Matthew went further to tell us how significant Jesus birth was by the visit of the Magi who in some tradition are regarded as Kings. They brought gifts to Jesus all of which are very symbolic in terms of his ministry and mission as the Messiah. While Matthew was weaving the birth narratives explaining it in relation to the Old Testament, Luke on the other hand, appears to be describing the coming of Jesus in terms of political history. Luke was the one that mentioned that there was a census that led to Jesus family going back to their home town of Bethlehem. In addition, he mentioned the political powers that be in those days grounding the birth of Jesus in historical context. Luke however had more than a historical Jesus in mind as he mentioned that this Messiah was actually born in a horse’s stable, the lowest of low places and an unlikely place for a King to be born. This contrast Jesus with the Ceasars of the day or the Herods who were Kings ruling from a vast palace.

Luke also tells us that some classless group of people came to visit Jesus. These were the shepherds, the commoners in those days. The choir of angels appear to have organised and did the first Carol Service for them in order that they might go and see Jesus!

While Matthew and Luke explains Jesus first coming in terms of his birth. Mark and John appears to skip this birth narratives. Mark started his Gospel with an introduction of Jesus as the Son of God and the ministry of John the Baptist bearing witness to Jesus’ identity as the Messiah. John following similar path, however departed by examining the origins of Jesus before he was born as a child. This beginning of Jesus, John asserts is the beginning of God (see John 1:2). While John would have been aware of Jesus birth stories, he did not preoccupy himself with that as he wanted to demonstrate that Jesus was eternal before his birth. He also appears to clarify perhaps some confusion around who was the Messiah, Jesus or John the Baptist by explaining that John came to bear witness to Jesus.

The climax of John’s understanding of  Jesus coming was his description of Jesus becoming human and living with us and like one of us (John 1:14). This is usually regarded as the incarnation, that is, God becoming human. I want to suggest that the church  continues the first advent or coming of Jesus as we have been charged to continue the mission of Jesus (Matthew 28:18-20). Infact, it is continuing this mission that will lead to the second stage of Jesus coming. The big question is how do the church continue to make Jesus human to our neighbours, work colleagues, friends and families so that they can at least touch his humanity and feel that he is real? For this to happen, we as Christians must first of all be human and real to people. We can not afford to adopt some form of heavenly language that does not touch on real life situations that faces people or live a life style that says something different from what we preach.

People out there are looking for real people so lets keep it real this Christmas so that Jesus can once again become human!

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Churches interrogate black over-representation in British prisons (Press Release)

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Pentecostals pay tribute to international leader Dr Myles Munroe (Press Release)

The death of Dr Myles Munroe in a tragic plane crash in Bahamas last Sunday 9 November 2014 has led to an outpouring of grief among the Pentecostal and Charismatic Christian community in Britain and round the world.  All nine people on board the Lear 36 Executive Jet died in the crash, including Dr Munroe, his wife Ruth, their daughter Charisa and members of his Bahamas Faith Ministries International leadership team.  Munroe was an internationally renowned bestselling author, lecturer, teacher, life coach, government consultant, and leadership mentor. He was a frequent visitor to the UK.

Paying tribute, Dr Eric Brown, Churches Together in England Pentecostal President says, ‘It was my distinct privilege to invite Dr Munroe as keynote speaker to several of our Pastors and Key Leaders’ Conferences and on every occasion he spoke professionally and prophetically into the lives of our leaders.  Indeed he was a frequent keynote speaker to many of the Evangelical, Pentecostal and Charismatic churches in this country.  He was a gifted communicator, effective motivator, a man of faith and great courage and full of the Holy Spirit.  He was a giant of our time and his unique place in the history of the Christian Church is secured.’

President of CiC International and Free Churches Moderator Dr Hugh Osgood recalls hosting Dr Munroe in London: ‘I know that many British church leaders have been deeply impacted by the warmth and encouragement he brought with him every time he visited the UK. Myles and his ministry will be greatly missed.’


And Dr Joel Edwards, International Director of Micah Challenge says: ‘Dr Myles touched so many lives on so many issues across so many communities.  As comfortable with Prime Ministers as he was the people, he walked with Kings without losing the common touch.  The world mourns the loss of a man who revealed the mind and heart of God.’

Dr Munroe’s ministry transcended race, culture, denominational and national boundaries with a message aimed at empowering others to discover their God-given purpose. In his own words, ‘The greatest Tragedy in life is not death, but a life without purpose.’

May he and all who died rest in peace.



Dr Eric Brown: 07956 157003

Dr Joe Aldred: 07775 632288

Faith Ministries International: https://www.bfmmm.com

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Intercultural Tensions: A Review of Gone to Far

Today my wife and I and two other people went to see a Nigerian film at the Odeon cinema in Greenwich. The film directed by a Nigerian writer Bola Agbaje and directed by another Nigerian Destiny Ekaragba is one of the streams of Nigerian films being shown at Greenwich cinema. The film is about the story of two estranged Nigerian brothers meeting together after a very long time. The whole story of the film took place in one day with different interpretations and nuances of culture and ethnicity. If there is anyone message the film is trying to pass across it is about self-identity and how we are perceived by others. This was demonstrated time and time again with the two Nigerian brothers, one brought in the UK and identifying himself as Black British, while the other who only just travelled in on this particular day saw himself as an African. The ensuing tension and interrogation that developed between the two brothers gives us an insight into the intercultural tension that we see between Africans born in Britain and Continental Africans (Those that born and grew up in Africa).

Other intercultural tensions that the film highlighted cleverly are the ones that exist between African Caribbeans and Africans, Africans and Asians and Caribbean and Asians. The film showed how the different cultures and ethnicities perceive each other such as stereotypes of Nigerians as Fraudulent people and Chinese people as illegal immigrants. The genius of the film was developing the relationship between the two Nigerian brothers from misunderstanding and disliking each other to being mutually inconvenience (A term coined by Rev Dr Michael Jagessar) and embracing each other. The film in essence highlights intercultural dynamics that takes places when different cultures and ethnicities decides to engage, interrogate and interact with each other, inconveniencing each other along the way so as to arrive at something new. These are lessons and insights that are very useful for anyone involved in a multicultural, multi-ethnic churches or context!

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Partnership in Mission Conference Report

Almost 50 Christians from across the UK and various cultural backgrounds met together on Saturday 6 September at Spurgeon’s College in London to explore how missionaries and pastors from the majority world can work in partnership with indigenous British Christians in the UK. With increasing numbers of Christians from the global south moving to the UK as missionaries, the Centre for Missionaries from the Majority World organised this Partnership in Mission conference to provide a space for honest discussion about how Christians of all backgrounds can work together more effectively and in equal partnership.

Pastor CeliaCelia Apeagyei-Collins, vice president of Tearfund and founder of the Rehoboth Foundation, spoke of how the Holy Spirit is working in the lives of many ethnic minority Christians in the UK, prompting them to have a heart for this land and helping them understand the terrain here. “God is savvy, he sees the future and has moved people from the global South in His wisdom to the UK to position us for what he is going to do” Celia explained.

Yemi Adedeji, director of the Evangelical Alliance One People Commission, agreed that while ethnic minority churche   s often did not initially focus on reaching out to British people, many now want to embrace their new community and are actively looking for ways to reach out to those around them.

Harvey Kwiyani, a director of CMMW, shared how many African pastors have told him they want to reach British people and be missional, and they are asking for training to engage effectively. CMMW in partnership with others is therefore working on a project in Birmingham called Missio Africanus, creating spaces for conversations and training pastors in cross cultural mission within the UK. Missio Africanus will also become a flagship journal for African missions and theology in Britain.

P1040763With six in ten of the missionaries to Ghana in the nineteenth century having died within two years, Celia shared her sincere thanks for the sacrifice of the missionaries who went from the UK across the world to share the good news, and for the prayer and worship of Christians across the decades in the UK, saying: “We need to celebrate and honour those that have gone ahead of us”.

Stories were shared at various points of the conference which revealed the divisions still evident among Christians – with one person asking why they were introduced as “my little African friend” when speaking at churches. Others shared how ‘white flight’ is a reality in many churches, with white people leaving once the church becomes largely black or a black leader begins, and pastors saying that many in their congregations do not want to coexist with people of other races.

“It’s about time we stopped focusing on what is different and zeroed in on the mission” Celia said, encouraging Christians to unite behind a shared vision to see God’s kingdom come. Partnership requires exchanging ideas and experiences with others, and letting truth bind us rather than being divided on doctrinal issues such as the prosperity gospel.

Celia spoke passionately about the need for us all to become more culturally intelligent – understanding where each other are coming from rather than viewing each other as “strange”. For example, we can understand why African Christians often pray through the night in prayer vigils when we appreciate that they have often come from cultures where you have suffered and need to rely on God for your basic needs, and where you are trained from a young age to pray for hours on your feet. African Christians can also find it hard to understand why some British Christians are relaxed and informal in the way they pray to God, but Celia has realised that this is because in the British culture people often relate to their fathers in a friendly way rather than having a respectful and fearful relationship.

P1040795“We can only have partnership when we accept that the other person has something to offer” Celia said, acknowledging the reality that often we look down on others and don’t consider them as equal partners. Drawing on the concept of covenant at Hebron in 1 Chronicles 12, she spoke of how God is looking for a covenant in Christian partnerships rather than just a bit of collaboration or participation. And covenant is not possible without relationships, which she suggested are formed through spending time and eating together, forging a tight unit and coming to the place where you ask others what their needs are and offer to supply them, getting alongside people and weeping with those who weep.

Yemi agreed with Celia that partnership is not possible without relationship. Using 1 Corinthians 14:22 he expounded on how we all have something to offer, with God placing in each of us the things he wished, and the body not being able to function without each doing its part. When partnering with others he emphasised the importance of knowing who you are and how you can serve the other person or organisation. For example your church may not have a building, but you may be passionate in prayer and can partner with another church’s project and pray for that. Or you may not have many people to run projects, but have a building you can offer other churches to use.

Roger StandingRoger Standing, principal of Spurgeon’s College, gave the final talk. He spoke passionately about the vision of a New Jerusalem where worshippers of all ethnicities worship before the throne, rich in diversity but uniting as one functioning community. He considers multi-ethnic churches as the best reflection of this vision, though acknowledges there are multifaceted reasons why mono-ethinc churches have and do exist.

Working for multicultural expressions of faith takes intentionality and hard work, and requires us all to go outside our comfort zones, avoiding the desire to simply associate with ‘PLUs’ – People Like Us. Roger feels local congregations are where the real and important action is, rather than national initiatives. Effective partnerships are seen through dialogical activism, with local ecumenical movements across the country seeing churches partner together and do things for their community such as food banks, debt counselling and Street Pastors.

P1040787The conference concluded by reaffirming the importance of relationships and focusing on a common kingdom vision which overcomes our differences. The need to train future church leaders to understand issues related to partnership and multicultural churches was also emphasised.


Action points

  • To reflect and challenge ourselves in regards to working together with other people
  • To find out in our local contexts who we can work in partnership with
  • Develop relationships first by eating together and listening to each other
  • Ask the question “what can I contribute to this relationship or how can our church help
    another church?”
  • What is it that the other person or church has that we do not have?
  • In a case where we already have these partnership or relationships in existence, how can we strengthen them?
  • How can we move from collaboration to covenant relationships?
  • To facilitate and create more spaces for these sort of conversations, CMMW aims to host more conversations, not just in London, but in other places such as Nottingham, Birmingham, Bristol, Lincolnshire and so on.

Written by Lucy Olofinjana

Listen to the talks here

Read an article on the Partnership in Mission conference on the Evangelical Alliance website.

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Legacy of Daniels Ekarte (c. 1890s-1964) and its implications for Public Leadership

Daniels Ekarté was from Calabar, Nigeria and around 1915 he worked his way into Liverpool as a seaman. The ethnic minorities in Liverpool suffered from the effects of institutional racism such as poverty, unemployment, rejection of mixed-race children and social deprivation. Ekarté founded The African Churches Mission (ACM) in 1931 in Toxteth, Liverpool to combat some of these social ills. As a preacher, Ekarté used every public opportunity he had to speak out against the injustices of his time. During World War II, he started an orphanage home to accommodate mixed-race children who were discriminated against by the society. The African Churches Mission was one of the first Black churches in Britain.
The history of African Churches Mission begins with the history of its founder, Daniels Ekarte, who was born in Calabar, Nigeria c. 1890s. As a boy Daniels was influenced by the Scottish missionary Mary Slessor (1848-1915) who worked amongst the Calabar people in Nigeria. Mary influenced Daniels as a result of her warming to the African culture. This sympathy towards African culture also helped Mary to stop the killing of twins in Calabar (as having twins was a taboo in that part of Nigeria in those days). Ekarte became a seaman and came to Liverpool, probably around 1915. He became a Christian in 1922 and began the African Churches Mission (ACM hereafter) in Toxteth, Liverpool in 1931. Liverpool’s prosperity in the mid-nineteenth century depended largely on the slave economy. The Black population increased during and after the First World War in places such as Liverpool, Bristol and London. One of the impacts of the war on Liverpool was the increase in unemployment and poor living conditions. This was coupled with racial discrimination. For example, inter-marriages between black men and white women were a major tension in Liverpool and the children of such marriages were termed ‘half-caste’ children (today known as mixed-race or dual heritage) and were rejected by many people in the society. These children were actually labelled as ‘mongrels’. This was the socio-economic milieu into which ACM was born.

Ekarte began to organise services in the slums, private rooms and open-air fields for the ethnic minority of Liverpool and through generous giving he later acquired a permanent place to meet. Ekarte’s church became a community centre for both black and white people in the community. He also visited people in prisons, hospitals and gave free meals to the poor. He became a voice for the poor and marginalised in society by defending them in his sermons and public speaking. Ekarte believed and fought for racial equality. For example, he campaigned for equal payment for black seamen because their white colleagues were receiving higher wages than them. This brought him in direct opposition with the local government and had negative effects on the ACM.
Post-Second World War brought about the birth of half-caste children resulting from the union between African American soldiers and English women. Ekarte decided to transform the ACM into an orphanage for these children and a rehabilitation centre for their mothers. He achieved this, but later this community project was ordered to close and the children transferred to the city’s children home. Ekarte was barred from any further contact with the children. The local authorities did this because they could not tolerate an African campaigning for racial equality and openly rebuking the British government for plundering the resources of Africa through colonialism. In addition, financial constraints worsened the case. After this event the life of the Mission continued but it struggled to survive. Finally in 1964 the local authorities demolished the building housing the Mission. The blow of the Mission closing was too much for Ekarte and not long after he died in 1964. Ekarte was and remained a hero in the sight of Africans and other marginalised people for the great things he achieved in Liverpool, but was a controversial figure in the eyes of others.

The achievements of ACM have implications for churches today in engaging with the social ills in our community: The first challenge of ACM is the fact that Ekarte condemned publicly the inequalities that he witnessed. Ekarte used every public opportunity he had to speak against the ill-treatment of the ethnic minority of his time. It is interesting to observe that Ekarte advocated for equal payments of black and white seamen and that he campaigned against institutional racism. In this he predates the efforts of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s in the United States which campaigned against racial discrimination. This point makes Ekarte a prophetic witness in his generation. We need church leaders today who will be bold to challenge some government policies and media stereotypes. One example will be the current stigmatization of immigrants, especially immigrants from Eastern Europe.

Secondly, Ekarte did not just advocate for the oppressed; he actually did something to remedy the situation. He used the resources at his disposal to feed the poor, and open an orphanage home and rehabilitation centre. A concern at the moment is that the Church in Britain has become either too middle class or professional to reach an average working class. It appears we are distant from people’s reality as we worship in our comfortable mega churches or big Christian festival and events. The church in the UK must surely find ways to connect with the working class.
In conclusion, the legacy of Daniels Ekarte is found in his recognition that God is in the business of liberating the oppressed. This propelled him, like the Old Testament prophets before him, to speak out against inequalities such as institutional racism. In addition to his public denunciation of injustice, he also became an agent of social change through acting on his convictions by starting ACM which became a centre for the community. Our churches must be challenged in the light of ACM’s legacy and the role of Daniels Ekarte as a public leader.

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